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These issues can turn out to be dangerous to the citizens of the world.


2016 was a turbulent year with many shocks such as the rise of populism and rejection of globalism, Britons voting to leave the EU, the failed coup in Turkey, Russia's military intervention in Syria, the end of America's pivot to Asia, and more.

But perhaps the biggest surprise of all was the November election of Donald Trump, whose "Make America Great Again" slogan could suggest a world with no global leader.

And with no clear leaders comes big threats. Here are ten of the most serious ones:


1. Independent America

President-elect Donald Trump's "America first" philosophy rejects the traditional Wilsonian approach to foreign policy centered on US-backed international alliances and institutions and instead sees multilateral institutions and international affairs as transactional.

Rather than aiming for longer-term global order and common values, Trump believes the US should act on near-term national interests and should be more flexible in dealing with rapid shifts on the global stage.

This can help create near-term chaos that comes from an absent superpower, broader weakening of institutional architecture, the rise of China and a growing potential for direct conflict with the US, and the fact that "Russia can act as a rogue and disrupter - and get away with it."


2. China overreacts

2017 is a big year for the Communist Party of China. In autumn, the party will host the 19th National Congress, which will determine the top leadership and set up the country's political future.

"Two risks flow from the upcoming power consolidation. First, because Chinese President Xi Jinping will be extremely sensitive to external challenges to his country's interests at a time when all eyes are on his leadership, the Chinese president will be more likely than ever to respond forcefully to foreign policy challenges. Spikes in US-China tensions are the likely outcome.

Second, by prioritizing stability over difficult policy choices in the run-up to the party congress, Xi may unwittingly increase the chances of significant policy failures.


3. Angela Merkel gets weaker

After years of strong German leadership in the EU, Chancellor Angela Merkel now faces various political and economic challenges including ongoing domestic dissatisfaction with the refugee crisis, corporate crises such as Deutsche Bank, and the rise of populism.

Heading into the September 2017 elections, she faces no serious opposition. However, she will need to appease far-right critics, which "will leave her a diminished figure," according to Eurasia Group.

Moreover, her position on the geopolitical front is disintegrating as well. And should National Front leader Marine Le Pen be elected president in France and call a referendum on EU membership, then "her government will become Merkel's antagonist."


4. No reforms

Leadership will sag on the domestic front in various countries this year. Specifically, Eurasia Group outlines four reasons reform could slow down:

1. National leaders who feel they have already done their part, including India's Narendra Modi and Mexico's Enrique Pena Nieto.

2. Political leaders in countries like China, Russia, France, Germany, and Argentina, who will likely avoid reforms until after elections.

3. Those who are not interested in genuine reform at all, including Turkey, South Africa, Italy, and the UK.

4. Leaders who will strive to push forward with reforms, but will face a plethora of obstacles, including Saudi Arabia's Mohammed bin Salman and Nigeria's Muhammadu Buhari.


5. Technology and the Middle East

Eurasia Group outlined several ways in which technological innovation stands to further increase political instability in the Middle East.

On the economics front, the energy revolution in the US has hurt OPEC, which stands to weaken the social contract between governments and citizens. Separately, automation is taking away opportunities from a region that already suffers from high youth unemployment.

Moreover, Iran is now less constrained in its use of cyberweapons, and regional terrorists increasingly are developing abilities to undermine computer systems.


6. Central banks get political

Central banks in developed markets have been pulled into the political hot zone for the first time in decades, as politicians now scapegoat banks for domestic economic problems.

"These attacks represent a risk to global markets in 2017 by threatening to upend central banks' roles as technocratic institutions that provide financial and economic stability," according to Eurasia Group.

Regarding the Federal Reserve specifically, the firm writes that Trump could appoint a "personal ally" as the next Fed chair, after Janet Yellen leaves in January 2018, in "a move that would undermine the Fed's reputation for years."

"It's a no-win situation for the Fed this year — its standing will take a hit no matter what," the firm added.


7. The White House versus Silicon Valley

There are several areas in which Silicon Valley (save for Peter Thiel) and Trump might square off, according to Eurasia Group.

First is the media sphere, where the agenda to curtail the spread of "fake news" and the proliferation of bots is "a direct threat to [Trump's] ability to maintain his popularity — and the appeal of his brand — and one he'll feel the need to combat."

There could also be tensions over broader economic patterns. Although Trump often discussed the negative effects of trade on US employment, he failed to address the problems associated with automation. But as automation increasingly puts people out of work, Trump will have to address the problem, and he may target the Silicon Valley companies driving the trend.

"Firms that aren't friendly to him, especially those whose business models center on the use of artificial intelligence and taking labor out of the marketplace, will offer a juicy political target," Eurasia Group wrote.


8. Turkey

Since the failed coup in July, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has cracked down on the judiciary, academic, bureaucratic, and media sectors. Now he is aiming to legitimize his position, and Turkey will hold a referendum in the spring regarding an expansion of presidential powers.

"Erdogan's drive to centralize powers will exacerbate many of the existing pressures on Turkey's domestic governance, economy, and foreign relations," Eurasia Group wrote. "Ever fewer checks on executive power will leave the private sector vulnerable to political whims."


9. North Korea

"2017 will be a big year for North Korea. That's not a good thing," Eurasia Group wrote.

The Hermit Kingdom has advanced its nuclear and missile programs and is getting closer to possessing an intercontinental ballistic missile capable of hitting the West Coast of the US. American policy continues to push for an elimination of the nuclear program.

"There are two main risks. First, the Trump administration ramps up coercive action against North Korea, and this precipitates a crisis in US-China relations," the firm wrote. "The second risk: South Korean President Park Geun-hye is forced from office and replaced with a center-left government that favors diplomacy with North Korea over coercion."


10. South Africa

South Africa has seen political infighting over the last year as President Jacob Zuma clashed with opponents within and outside of the ruling African National Congress.

This infighting "will undermine the country's traditional role as a force for regional security," Eurasia Group wrote. "This leadership failure is deepening at exactly the wrong time, because events in coming months will challenge regional stability."

One example Eurasia Group notes is Zimbabwe, which will likely see an uptick in opposition protests — which president Robert Mugabe will probably suppress — in the lead-up to the 2018 elections.

"In 2008, then South African President Thabo Mbeki helped broker a power-sharing deal when an election in Zimbabwe spun out of control," Eurasia Group added. Today's divided and distracted South Africa is much less able to repeat that role."







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